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THE DEPRESSION

During the depression, Leonard was off of work for one year. We put our car in the garage and walked to town and carried groceries home. We could walk to Edgar's, Guy's, and our friends, Hermann and Marian Campbell's.

Edgar and Leonard got work putting the roof on the Kennewick High School. They could hardly stand the hot tar on their feet and the heat coming up over their body and faces, as it was more than 120EF in the shade. Leonard also hoed potatoes for a neighbor for 25 cents per hour.
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GERTRUDE

Edgar's first marriage was to a girl named Gertrude Bauchmann, we called her "Gert." I chummed with her for years. They lived up on Knob Hill at the southeast corner of what is now Sixth and Juniper Streets. We lived in the valley on what is now South Gum Street. If Gertrude stood on their flume and would wave a red shirt, I could see her and tell she wanted me to come up to see her. If I wanted her, I would open our garage door.

When I was about 15 years old, I had a crush on Gertrude's brother, Fred Bauchmann. He never knew how wonderful I thought he was. He was tall and very nice looking. One very hot day he was digging ditches for irrigation water. He was just a wash of sweat. He ran to the irrigation canal and jumped into the water. He died instantly. We all mourned his death.

Edgar and Gertrude had only one child that lived, Gertrude Jean. She was premature and had colic so badly that they finally found out that goats milk was the only thing that would agree with her. During this time I had my first experience milking a goat. We had to put the goat on a box while it was being milked. Jean did fine on goats milk.

Edgar was involved in a tragic automobile accident in Finley during a Sunday afternoon drive. Edgar had purchased a new Dodge car. Edgar, Gertrude, Mama, and Jean stopped by our house to take us for a ride.
We were not home. Edgar's family drove on toward Bryson Brown corner. A young man, who had been heavily drinking, was driving in a fast moving car and hit Edgar's car. Jean saw the car coming and said it was coming very fast and weaving badly. A spectator indicated that the car was going fast and was weaving and moving erratically. Edgar's arm was cut very badly. He was sent into shock. Mama's head was badly cut and some ribs were broken. Gertrude had a broken pelvis.


Jean was just a little girl and she was so frightened that she still remembers the accident. She was thrown under the other car beside the man who was dying. She thought that he was snoring. She kept saying, "Wake him up, he is snoring, Wake him up, he is snoring." Each time he took a breath, blood was discharged from his mouth. Mama told Edgar to go to the Bryson Brown house and telephone for help. She said her head was bleeding badly. Edgar could only respond, "Are you?"

Jean's little puppy vanished at the time of the accident. Thorough searches of the surrounding fields and contacts with neighbors failed to reveal any information on the fate of the puppy.

Mama and Jean were taken to the second floor of the Pasco Lady of Lourdes Hospital. Edgar and Gertrude were taken to the fourth floor. I kept going back and forth between the two floors. Jean did not want me to leave her. Edgar was in terrible shock and kept saying it couldn't be his fault because he couldn't drive and didn't have a car. He got so upset that I was afraid to leave him, so I hired a special nurse to stay with him. The next day he was better.

The mother of the young man who was killed wrote and sent terrible telephone calls to Edgar, accusing him of killing her son. She was so persistent that Edgar became fearful of even answering the telephone or opening his mail. She threatened to sue Edgar and take everything that he owned.

Gertrude lost three babies. One is buried in Latah, one in Sunnyside, and one in Kennewick near Tenth Avenue and Olympia Street. She was getting along really well after her last miscarriage, but a blood clot settled in her heart and we lost her. I still miss her a lot. It nearly broke our hearts when she died very suddenly from a blood clot after having a miscarriage. I still miss her after all these years. None of us wanted her to try to have another baby, but Doctor Spaulding thought that she could. I helped mama as much as I could with Edgar and Jean.

Gertrude Bauchmann and I were very close. She and I worked sorting apples at the Big Y for a while. Gert could not sleep days and had


trouble with the night work schedule. I bought a cow with part of my money that was supposed to be with a calf, but wasn't. So I really was cheated since she could never have a calf.

We cooked, sewed, and were together so much. Gertrude and I used to chase a big fat hen and make a large kettle of chicken and dumplings. We would all have dinner together. She liked the chicken back the best. So all of us saved those pieces for her.

Gertrude could look at the dress on someone, go home and make a perfect dress pattern with newspapers. We were planning on making dresses for Jean and Bonnie the day she died. She was a wonderful Christian girl. She was so sweet. She always cried when she laughed really hard and wet her pants. Leonard used to tell the funniest stories at the table and away Gert was gone.

Gertrude and Bonnie had so much fun together. Whenever Bonnie came through the door, Gertrude would sing, "My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean." Bonnie missed her so much after Gertrude was gone.

Gertrude was about 5 feet 5 inches. She was slender with dark hair and brown eyes. She always could get a beautiful tan, but I burned. She loved to work in the garden and with her flowers. Jean also takes after her as she also loves flowers and gardening. Gertrude was a good cook, but she loved the outdoors most. She was very pretty and a sweet Christian girl. Whenever her feelings were hurt, she would hide and cry. She would always tell her little hurts to me. Jean is like her in many ways. I can see Gertrude when I look at Jean, sometimes.
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OUR CHILDREN'S GROWING YEARS

Leonard would put Gilbert in a box and put him on the back of the harrow. Gilbert would ride and play until he would go to sleep.
Leonard would bring him to the house. He was a wonderful husband and father. He worked so hard to support his family and had so much fun with them.

We had a Model T Ford pickup to bring feed from town. One day we looked out and Gilbert was taking off in it across the fields (Leonard had left it running). We were scared, but he did look so cute. It looked like the pickup was driving itself.

Gilbert made a bow and arrow set. I don't know how he ever did it, but he shot an arrow through his finger. I took him to Dr. Spaulding to have the arrow cut out. Gilbert never made a sound. When it was over, Gilbert said, "It takes a lot to make a Wagenaar cry." Dr. Spaulding looked at me and smiled. I was crying very hard.

When Gilbert was six-years old and in the first grade, he came home from school and wanted to go directly to bed. I told Mama something was wrong. He never does that. So we went to the bedroom and asked him what was wrong. He said that his side hurt where a fourth grader had kicked his groin. Mama and I felt a hernia.

I ran over and asked Mr. Keene what I should do. He said to push it back up, put a big button over it and wrap him in a cloth to keep it in place. I pushed it back up and took him to the doctor the next day. Dr. Spaulding ordered a truss for Gilbert.

Gilbert wore this truss until he had an operation for appendicitis. He was flat on his back for four months while the hernia healed. Dr.
Spaulding said that the only thing that might cause the hernia to recur would be if Gilbert were to play football.


Gilbert was such a healthy boy, but when he did get sick, he was really sick. When he was ten-years old, he had appendicitis. By the time Dr. Spaulding found what was wrong, his appendix had ruptured. Blood poisoning (peronitis) set in. We almost lost him. It was only by the goodness of God that we kept him with us.

Gilbert was flat on his back, without even a pillow, for four months. His side had a tube in it. It was still draining even after he was able to get up. He had to learn to walk all over again, but with my help, he made his grades. Bonnie would bring his school work home to him and take his paper work back. She helped me so much with him. She played games and waited on him.

We used to love to wrestle. Bonnie and I decided one day that we were going to put Leonard down. We ended up on the bottom with him sitting on the two of us.

Gilbert and Bonnie had plenty of battles between them, but let someone else pick or bother the other one, well, that was a different story.
Believe me, I used to tell them they would hurt or kill each other.

One day they decided to play a trick on me. Bonnie laid down on the floor and Gilbert poured catsup on her and on a knife. Then holding the knife in his hand, he stood over Bonnie and screamed, "I've killed her! I've killed her!" I took one look at them and keeled over, passed out with fright. Those poor kids were scared to pieces. They thought I was dead (no wonder mothers get grey). All in all, we had lots of fun together.

We raised turkeys on the farm. I bought a setting (approximately eight) of turkey eggs, and four of them hatched out. I called them Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year, and the Fourth of July. But my Fourth-of-July turkey was stolen. That is all they took, just the one turkey. He was so big and so pretty. I wonder if we could have killed and eaten him.

We had a cow named Fawn. We all loved her as we raised her from a calf. One day we were all dressed up to go to Walla Walla. I went to


see her as she was going to calf. As soon as I saw her, I knew the calf was coming. I ran down and told Leonard. He stayed with her until the calf came. He changed clothes again and I went up to see her and the little calf. She was having another one. Leonard said it couldn't be so because she had already had a calf. But I could see a hoof. Leonard changed clothes again and we had our first twin calves. One was a heifer and we named her twinkle. We never did get to go to Walla Walla.

Our cow Fawn and a little white dog named Honey had a real close companionship. The little dog would sleep every night right up close to Fawn. Neither moved until morning milking time. One morning, Leonard went up to milk and Fawn had gotten up during the night and laid right down on top of Honey. How we cried over that poor little crushed dog.

After this tragedy, we had a German police dog named Husky. Bonnie and Gilbert were going through a time of crying during the night and wanting to get in bed with me. We were asked by the neighbor girl to go to a show "Werewolf." I told the children that it would be a frightening show and if they were frightened, they had to stay in their beds, and if they cried they would not be allowed to attend any more shows. We came home and went to bed.

Guess who got scared? Big me! Husky started to howl. He sounded just like the werewolf in the movie. I turned on every light in the house, chicken house and barn, woke both children up and made them get in bed with me. When Leonard came home, he said it looked like a big city with all of the lights on.

One of our neighbors in the valley in South Kennewick was a very mentally retarded man. I was so afraid of him for the children's sake, especially for Bonnie. Leonard worked nights and I didn't even have a phone. At night he would try to pry doors open or get up on the roof and walk around. He finally attacked a neighbor girl, but with Leonard and her mother dragging him away, she was all right. After that incident he was committed to the institution at Medical Lake.


His younger brother was two years older and larger than Gilbert. He kept beating up on Gilbert. Gilbert was afraid of him. One day they were fighting and Gilbert was giving ground. When Leonard yelled at him, "Gilbert, if you don't lick him, I'll lick you." I guess Gilbert figured he was going to get it either way, so he really beat up on him. After that they had no more troubles.

One morning after Leonard had gone to work, I went up to the barn to see if everything was taken care of. I noticed that Fawn, our cow we had raised from a calf, was bloated. I ran and asked Mr. Keene if he could do something. He said he did not know of anything that we could do. I knew that I should not let her lie down. I walked her around the farm. Because she did not improve, I took her into the barn and put a homemade bridle into her mouth to make her start chewing. This caused the gas in her stomach to be released. I had watched Leonard do this with other animals. I put wet sacks over her back. I knew that if this did not help her that I would have to stick a knife into her side. I was praying that I would not have to cut her with a knife. She began to belch and the gas just rolled out of her. Within an hour she seemed to be back to normal. I stopped and praised the Lord for his help.

Gilbert came to the house one morning very excited. He told me there were nine little white piglets in the barn. I just couldn't believe this as we were not expecting any little ones. I went to the barn with Gilbert and there they were, nine perfect, pure white little piglets. I told Gilbert I was sorry I thought he was teasing me and I didn't believe him. He was always a big tease. We later sold them for $2 apiece. Can you believe that?

One day when I came home from town, Gilbert met me at the door with what was supposed to be a cake. He said he followed the recipe carefully. I asked him to show me what he had put into it. When he got through, he had used powdered sugar instead of flour. So he had powdered sugar and sugar both in it. It made really good candy, if you ate it with a spoon.

Our nearest neighbors lived North of us. Gilbert and Bonnie called her Auntie Keene. They loved her so much, especially Gilbert. He would


help her collect wood and harvest vegetables. She would ask Gilbert what he wanted to eat. She would then prepare it for him. She would time her eggs in the incubator. When she heard Leonard come home, she would get up and turn the eggs over. One night Leonard worked a double shift and she did not wake up. The eggs were all spoiled.

There was a young couple who lived about two blocks from our house. They had a darling little daughter and spent quite a bit of time with the Keene family. One day we heard some terrible screaming. Leonard and I thought it was one of the children. But the young lady was trying to run for help. She had gone to town, purchased a bottle of Lysol. When she got home, she took a bath, put on a white dress, and drank the whole bottle of Lysol on an empty stomach. When it started burning so badly, she tried to get to Auntie Keene's for help.

Auntie Keene seemed to know what had happened and whipped up some egg whites to make her vomit. When Leonard first reached her, she said she had nothing to live for. She had told Auntie Keene that she wanted to commit suicide as her Mother and Grandmother had both taken their lives with carbolic acid.

We took her to the Lady of Lourdes Hospital in Pasco, where she died a few hours later. No one wanted the little girl or was willing to adopt her because they were concerned that she might have inherited her family's suicidal tendencies. Her husband came over and wanted me to buy her rings. I just couldn't because he acted so unconcerned and uncaring.
She had no family that we knew of.

We had a deep well in the valley with the best tasting water. There was a ladder that went down to the pump. Leonard had to go down occasionally to oil and grease the motor and pump. I had a difficult time keeping Gilbert and Bonnie away from the well opening. It seemed like that was the only place they sometimes wanted to play.
Even today, after all these years, I dream that one of them is falling into the well. I try to grab them and cannot hold on to them. It's strange what the mind will store up and retain.


When Gilbert was little and would become angry with me, he said he was going to leave home. So one day, getting tired of it, I packed his little suit case, made him a lunch, told him goodbye, and said I surely hated to see him leave. But if he ever wanted to come back, we would welcome him with open arms. He started out really happy and I followed out of sight so he could not see me. He got up the hill where the road splits, one to town and one to Edgar and Guy's places. He stopped and sat on a rock and cried. As I passed him, he started after me crying, "I don't want to leave home." He never again told me he was going to leave home. When Gilbert was older, he was very good to milk our cow, Fawn.

Guy and Marie told me they had done this with Leslie and how well it had worked. Marie helped me out a lot. As I said, we really talked up a storm when we were together. When Guy worked nights, Marie and I would go out under the peach trees and talk while Guy slept. Guy would yell out the window at us to be quiet.

Guy and Marie's daughter, Shirley, was born only 20 days after Bonnie. Bonnie and Shirley tried to keep up with their older brothers, Gilbert and Boyd, but they usually paid for it in the end. The girls were walking one day and noticed a very nice looking young man coming their way. Shirley was trying to look real grown up. Unfortunately, she caught her toe and went tumbling down in front of the young man.
Bonnie still laughs at how Shirley looked. They had lots of fun together. Bonnie and Shirley frequently packed a lunch and went out on their bicycles most of the day. Whitey, our white horse that was very tame. Sometimes, Bonnie would get up early and go outside before combing her hair and ride the horse around. I could work Whitey making irrigation ditches for the water for our five acres.

One day Bonnie and Shirley were swinging on a old tire swings at Gut's house. Bonnie's swing broke and she fell to the ground. The tire struck her in the stomach, knocking the wind out of her. Shirley always laughed when Bonnie got hurt, but she didn't laugh that day. She couldn't breathe and she thought she was dying.


I canned a lot of tomato juice for winter. The girls found out that the juice was very good as a dip for home made bread. They found the juice so delightful that they used most of it for dipping. We all had fun together. We had a really good baseball team. The neighbor kids would all gather at our place. Leonard and I would play with them.
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BIRTH OF BONITA

In September, I became pregnant with Bonita Joyce. We were delighted. We wanted a little girl to go with our little boy. I had lost twins when we lived in Marshall. I was sick all nine months, carrying Bonita. We had planned for her and called her Bonita all the time I carried her. We used to laugh at Gilbert. He would grab his little stomach and say, "Bonita is kicking me." On June 9, 1930, we had a baby girl with red curls and named her Bonita Joyce. Gilbert was so proud of her, of course, like brother and sister. When Dr. Spaulding delivered her, with Mama and Leonard helping him, Gilbert was so pleased it was a curly, red-haired girl. Doctor Spaulding gave her to me and said, "You got just what you wanted, a little girl."

They all teased me as Veva's husband Leslie had the only red hair in our family, but when Great Grandpa Wagenaar saw her he said, "That's my girl. My hair was just that color when I was young." During the years we were around him, his hair was white as snow.

Bonnie is very modest now. I used to wonder why she would run outdoors and take all of her clothes off. She was very tiny and cute with her red curls. When I would hear all of the cars stopping, I would run outdoors and find her stark naked.
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OUR MOVE TO KENNEWICK

My brothers, Edgar and Guy, had moved to Kennewick, Washington in 1927. Edgar began teaching in Finley School. Guy worked for the Northern Pacific Railroad. Edgar wrote swell glowing words about how warm the winter weather was and that we should come to Kennewick to live. Mama, Edgar, and Guy all encouraged us to move to Kennewick.

We moved there July 28, 1928. Two weeks after we arrived, Leonard again started working for the Northern Pacific Railroad. We bought a small five-acre place outside of Kennewick on what was then called "The Valley" but is now on the north west corner of the intersection of 18th Avenue and South Gum Street.

We had a lot of fun and a lot of work on our five acres. We had a white horse, two cows, lots of chickens, and pigs. We cured ham and bacon, and put up sausage and lard. We raised our own vegetables in a big garden, some fruit, alfalfa, black caps, asparagus, and grew a strawberry patch. So we had lots of food from our five acres. The strawberry patch bought our first new blue, two-door, 1937 Ford. We paid $700 cash for it from our strawberries.

We worked really hard there, but it was our own and we loved it. We added two bedrooms and a bath and shingled the roof. We painted it white with green windows and doors. We had a big long chicken house and a big barn. The barn had room for three cows and we milked two. The house wasn't finished inside and I would saw and pound nails while Leonard slept. He worked nights for eleven years.

I don't see how Leonard could sleep during the daytime, but he did. We had a baseball team on the farm. All the kids that lived close would come to our place to play. We had quite a team. I would try to keep them quiet so that Leonard could sleep. All it took was to have Leonard


come to the door and yell at them. Kids scattered in every direction. Bonnie was laughing, because one day when Leonard yelled through the door at them to be quiet, Boyd and Gilbert climbed into a tree.
Gilbert went up first and wouldn't let Boyd come on up. I asked Gilbert if he remembers this. He replied that he does, such precious memories. The first winter the temperature dropped to 36 degrees below zero.
There were 18 inches of snow on the ground for days. We put the bed in the kitchen and kept the big old range red hot. I had to break the ice with an axe to water the stock and pump while they drank. Because the old green bridge for automobiles had not yet been built, Leonard had to drive to the railroad bridge and walk across the bridge to the Round House where he worked in Pasco. I used to worry so much when Leonard was late coming home after working the night shift. It seemed like it took so long for spring to come.

One day our little Model T Ford pickup wouldn't start. Leonard tried to use some canned heat to warm the engine. The engine caught on fire.
Leonard yelled for me. When I saw the fire, I picked up a whole sack of feed and poured enough on the engine to put out the fire.

The next day I asked Leonard to put back the rest of the feed. Leonard replied, "Why? You carried it up in one hand. Even I can't do that." Fear can surely give one strength. Leonard has told and laughed about this story many times.

One night we had an earthquake in Kennewick. I could not find Gilbert anywhere. I was just frantic. It had thrown him out of bed and up against the wall under the bed. He was still sound asleep. What a relief it was to see that he was still all right.

We also experienced two severe wind storms. One occurred during the time while the old green bridge was being built and was only open to one-way traffic. Leonard was on his way home and I had just started supper. Gilbert and Bonnie were in the house with me. I looked across the asparagus field and saw a big black cloud approaching. When it hit the house, everything was completely darkened. I grabbed both children and held them close to me. The hay stacks were flapping up


and down. My supper in the house became covered with sand. I was very relieved when Leonard arrived home.

A second severe wind storm occurred shortly after Gilbert and Elaine returned home from World War II. Red Hall (a railroad engineer that lived in Pasco) had invited us for dinner. Gilbert had gone to the Round House to pick up Leonard. The terrible wind storm struck. The trees fell all around us and power and telephone wires were blown down.
How thankful I was to see them arrive into our driveway safely.
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VEVA'S FAMILY

While Gilbert was a little baby, Leonard took us to Oaksdale to help Leslie haul wheat. While I helped Veva with the chores, I asked Joycie to call us if the baby cried. She would run up to us and tell us, "Baby is cying, cying, cying." So I would run up to the house and pick him up. He was such a good baby and Joycie was a very loving and responsible cousin to look after him.

One day while Mama was visiting Leslie and Veva, Veva and Joycie took Mama shopping in Tekoa. Veva bought some all-day suckers. It troubled Joycie when she noticed that Mama chewed and then swallowed a sucker. Joycie said, "Grandma, don't eat it, suck it!" Mama thought that Joycie was so cute.

Leslie bought a new cow. He did not tell me she was a kicker. When I helped Veva milk, the new cow kicked me under another cow, who fortunately happened to be very gentle. I could have been seriously injured.

While we were there, Veva and I prepared meals for the men that were threshing wheat. We delivered the dinner to the harvest crew in the fields so that they would not waste time by having to stop working and come to the house for dinner. Leslie told us to bring the dinner to the fields in a big truck. I had never driven a truck. To get the food to the crew, we had to drive through a creek, over fields, and up steep hills.
As we climbed a steep hill, the truck slowed and we had to change gears. I was surely scared. Leslie thought it was so easy, but Veva and I neither one liked to shift gears in that big truck. After my experience with the first hill we would stop and put the truck in low gear as we approached the beginning of the next hill. Then we had to come down the other side of the same steep hill with the same big truck.


I decided to work a few days for Leslie's sister-in-law. Gilbert was so good that I thought I could manage it. My job was to milk two cows, to carry slop up a steep hill to the pigs, to take care of four children in a big house, to pick raspberries, to make jam, to churn butter, and to bake bread. After completing these chores, I was exhausted. I was paid only one dollar a day. Leonard took me out of there real fast when he found out what I was doing.

One week end on Gilbert's first birthday we went from Marshall to Oaksdale to see Leslie and Veva. When we had finished our visit, Leonard and I wanted to go home. But Leslie wouldn't hear of it until he had gone to Oaksdale for some ice cream. A drunk driver crossed the road and struck Leslie's car. Gilbert's head was cut really badly. The large cut barely missed his main artery.

The doctor thought Leslie was Gilbert's father, so he asked Leonard to hold Gilbert while he stitched up Gilbert's little head. The doctor said Gilbert would have been killed if the cut had reached the artery. He instructed us to protect Gilbert from falling or taking any hard bumps until the cut was healed. That was very difficult, because Gilbert was just learning to walk.

When Veva was pregnant with Roberta, Mama went to help and stayed for a few weeks. Leslie, Mama, and Veva were sitting in the front room when they noticed smoke coming down from the ceiling. Leslie looked into the other room and saw that the whole house was in flames. Leslie ran and got out his cream checks and Veva picked up the cedar hope chest containing pictures and keepsakes and children's clothes.

Veva opened the window and fell out through the window with the hope chest. Mama was so worried that Veva would lose the baby. It was snowing and freezing outside. Neighbors rushed over to help and took them to their warm homes.

The fire occurred right after Christmas and all presents were destroyed as well as the whole house. Mama had grabbed Joyce and carried her out of the house. Leslie and Veva rebuilt a new house on the same


property, but soon afterwards, they moved to the Crowe's place. It was one of the nicest farms around and Leslie had always wanted that place.

Fortunately Veva recovered from the fire and her fall with no serious complications. Roberta was a lovely girl. She loved to comb Leonard's hair. Leslie wouldn't let anyone comb his hair or even touch it.

One day Joycie came to visit in Kennewick. We were sitting out on a blanket in the yard. As I was reading to Joyce, she jumped up and threw her arms around by head and said, "Oh, Auntie Elma, I love you." Crack went my glasses. I had just had them repaired when Gilbert had thrown a rock and hit a telephone pole. The rock bounced back and hit my glasses. Again I had to have them fixed, oh what fun!
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OUR MOVE TO MARSHALL

As soon as spring came, we packed up what was ours, and left. George and Elsie begged us to stay, but we wouldn't change our minds. As we started to travel toward Marshall (a small town near Cheney), our pickup encountered a soft spot in the road. Down the pickup went. We walked to Lippe's home and stayed all night. Mrs. Lippe put Mama Gilbert and me in a feather bed. I had never slept in a feather bed. We all rolled to the middle. I was so afraid that we would smother Gilbert. He was so little. Leonard slept in a root cellar and nearly froze to death, while Mama and I were so warm. The Lippe's were very good to us.

Our new home in Marshall was a great big old two-story house. We paid ten dollars per month for it. Leonard worked one year for the Armour Meat Packing Company in Spokane. It was a good job, but we had to get up at 5:00 a.m. Leonard would return home after dark for six days of the week. He then worked a year for the Northern Pacific Railroad in Marshall.

I boarded two men, Dan and Walter, from a signal railroad control tower. I received forty dollars a month from each of them. Feeding them and caring for the house really kept me busy. Dan was difficult to cook for and was very critical. I carried all of our water from the creek across a road and the railroad tracks. We had a wooden out house which was quite some ways from the house. Walter was very helpful.
He had six sisters and was used to women. He frequently took care of Gilbert, while I walked to the store for groceries (it was quite a walk).

There were lots of hobos in Marshall. Because we lived close to the railroad tracks, we received many visits. I did not feed many of them, but if they were young and seemed willing to work for food, I would give them a sandwich.

One morning an older man came to the door. I just stood and looked at him. He looked so much like my Papa used to look. I invited him inside and fed him pancakes, bacon, eggs, and coffee. I sewed up his coat


while he was eating. He was trying to get to Lewiston where his family was located. Leonard was really put out with me and read me the riot act. He said I could have been killed. But all I could say was, "But he looked like my Papa."

Leonard was working as a track repairman. Mr. Johnson, his foreman, really was good to us. He was so very lonesome. He had lost his wife and twin daughters. We would all spend Sundays together in Spokane. We would go to the Natatorium Park and he would hold Gilbert while Leonard and I rode on the different rides.

We bought a Ford Model A coupe and some new furniture at Berger's Store in Spokane. We could go to Spokane (Leonard, I, and Gilbert) and get a big hamburger for ten cents, a piece of pie for ten cents, coffee for five cents, go to two shows, and bring home a quart of ice cream for $1.00. This made us very happy and busy with a small boy besides.
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BIRTH OF GILBERT

Guy and Edgar wanted to move to Kennewick. Mama sold our house in Latah and gave Guy and Edgar part of the proceeds for down payments on the two houses they bought. Their houses were separated by about a city block. Both houses had acreage for orchards, potatoes, alfalfa, and gardens.

When we lived on the farm, Leslie and Alma came and visited us for a week. We had lots of fun. I told Alma I was going to have a baby, but not to tell anyone in Kennewick. She got off the train yelling, "Aunt Elma is going to have a baby." We had so many little roosters to cook while Leslie and Alma were there that Leslie said he never wanted to see another chicken.

I had fallen on the ice and began to have contractions. Leonard had to take me to Spokane to the hospital. George never offered to help with the 30 cows we were milking. When Mr. and Mrs. Lippe heard I had fallen and was having pains, they came right over. Little Gilbert Leonard was born six weeks early on January 29, 1927. He was a long baby and really thin. Mama stayed with me until he was six weeks old. She then went back to Kennewick where she lived with Edgar and his wife, the former Gertrude Bauchmann.

When I came home from the Deaconess Hospital in Spokane after Gilbert was born, it was so cold on the ranch that I got milk fever. I was miserable. My breasts were very feverish and Gilbert would not nurse. We were isolated on the ranch because of snow and cold. Mama whipped up egg whites and made a poultice, put hot plates over the poultice, and drew out the fever. Some of these home cures seemed like life savers. A mustard poultice was effective for pneumonia, a steam bath for chest congestion, an onion poultice for infection, soda for gas and heartburn, hot plates on the stomach for menstrual cramps, and salt packs and cigar or cigarette smoke for an ear ache. We were warned not to eat the first snow as it was supposed to contain germs from the air. We could hardly wait for the second snow so we could make snow ice cream. A little sugar, cream, and snow made good ice cream. We


had two big stoves, one for the living room and one for the kitchen. First we burned wood, but in the later years we burned some coal.

When Gilbert was born, the Crandall's had moved into a new home a short way from us. Leonard got up at 4:00 a.m. to milk the cows. He would work with the teams until dark, milk the cows again, and finally fall into bed about 10:00 p.m. If we had company, he would usually fall asleep. He worked so hard and yet Crandall's found so much fault with us.

When George heard the Lippe's had milked the cows for us he was furious. Leonard was in Spokane from Thursday afternoon until Saturday afternoon. George jumped all over him, so Leonard told him as soon as the roads would permit, we were leaving.
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MARRIAGE TO LEONARD

Leonard and I were married in the courthouse in Spokane with Uncle J.
B. Gilbert officiating and Leslie and Veva Lamb as witnesses. Mama worked hard for the money to purchase the materials to make me a very pretty white dress with lace for my graduation. A year later I wore the same dress on my wedding day. Later I dyed it a different color and wore it for formal dress occasions.

We were married May 11, 1926. We had planned to be married in June, because I had wanted to be a June bride. But we had ordered 200 baby chicks to be delivered in June. The chicks arrived the first of May, over a month too early. We could find no one to take care of the chicks. So we got married May 11, 1926. I had never taken care of little chicks like that. Because I let them get too cold, we lost over 40 of them. I cried and cried. The rest of them did fine.

We didn't have a honeymoon. We spent the day in Spokane with Leslie and Veva and had our pictures taken. While Leonard and Leslie went shopping for a diamond wedding ring, Veva and I met our cousin Tyra Stafford, who was a Spokane policeman. He walked us down the streets of Spokane with one of us on each arm. Other policemen teased him and would not believe him when he told them we were his cousins.

We then returned to Cheney where I had been living. I packed up my things and went out to Crandall's, where Leonard was working on shares. Crandall's lived in a log house with a large living room, two bedrooms, a kitchen, and a pantry. They kept about thirty milk cows, and raised produce to sell in Spokane. We lived with George and Elsie Crandall on their dairy and produce farm. We paid them $40 a month for my board, and they really worked me. They weren't very nice to me as they didn't want Leonard to marry.

We had been married about a week and we wondered why there had not been a charivari or wedding shower. One evening we were sitting out on the front porch, when head lights of cars began to come around


the turn in the road. We had a real surprise and a fun evening. Our neighbors, Mr. and Mrs. Lippe, gave us a beautiful cut glass dessert set. Elsie and George Crandall gave us a complete set of china dishes. We received many nice presents.

I became pregnant right away and was so sick for five months. I worked in the garden and herded the cows about two miles to the spring. I was really afraid of the bull and always had a tree in sight to climb if he started after me. He would stop and bellow and paw the ground. Elsie did the cooking and that was all. The Crandalls accused me of stealing eggs and cream. It was very unfair, because my chickens were white and laid white eggs. Their chickens were brown and laid brown eggs. It was very easy to avoid getting them mixed up, either intentionally or unintentionally. Leonard told George that there was a nest of eggs under the manger. George came back and told him that Elma had beat him to them. Leonard took him to the barn and showed him where they were.

There was some acreage on the Crandall's farm that was not being used. Leonard wanted to plant potatoes, but George was against it. George said they would not do well in that location. Leonard planted the potatoes and produced a wonderful crop. We took the potatoes into Cheney and traded them for groceries. We had credit at both grocery stores in Cheney because of the wonderful potato crop.

One time George decided to destroy three little calves. I begged him to let me keep them. I fed them by hand, getting them to drink out of a bucket. They grew very fast. One day we were down to our last penney. We had no money left. Leonard went to work very discouraged. On this day of need, a man came to me and bought the calves for $2 each. Then Veva and Leslie came by and gave me $4 from a debt they owed us.
When Leonard came home that evening, I had $10. In those days $10 was a lot of money. I felt that God had provided us in a big way and felt very thankful.

Our nearest neighbors lived about a half mile from us. They were a little German couple named Lippe, and could Mrs. Lippe cook. When she knew Leonard was coming over to help Mr. Lippe, she would cook


the best food. They were very good to us and we spent many a nice evening with them. Our only recreation was playing pinochle and swimming.

When we were living on the farm, we would go to Fish Lake Resort to swim and cool off. One Sunday, two young men walked from Spokane to go swimming in the lake. They jumped in the lake without cooling off first. One young man died, the other became very sick. An autopsy was performed on the one that died. The Doctor said that his heart had burst wide open from the sudden change in the temperature of his body.

One day Leonard was diving off the high tower at Fish Lake. He had submerged a good ways and as he was about to surface, a heavy man dived and struck Leonard in the head, knocked the wind out of him, and caused him to go down again. Leonard could not get his breath. When he finally got to the top, blood was pouring out of a cut on his head.
Everyone was very concerned for him. But he soon recovered. We surely had lots of fun at the lake. We lived just one mile from it. There was a very nice resort at the lake where one could rent boats. It was a pretty lake with water lilies blooming around the edge of the water.

Elsie told me not to learn how to milk or I would have to do it all the time. But time passed too slowly while Leonard milked thirty cows. So I had him give me the easier ones to milk and had my own little herd.
We had one big Guernsey cow named Betsy that gave gallons of milk each day. Her bag and her tits were so big that I never attempted to milk her. But Leonard one day went with George to campaign for road commissioner. They didn't get home until real late. I milked my herd and started on Leonard's and finally had them all milked but Betsy. I milked on Betsy until she was finished. It made me so nervous and tired that after going to sleep, I dreamed that I milked Betsy all night.

When Leonard took the horses to work on the road, I was left alone and felt frightened. You could not see another house in any direction, only timber. One day when Leonard was working on the road, I was so lonesome. A little black coupe drove into our driveway. I ran to the car thinking it was Edgar and almost had my arms around a perfect stranger. Leonard was a little upset over it.


We had a dog called Whistle. If it had not been for the comforting companionship of Whistle, I could not have stayed there alone. Whistle followed me everywhere I went. He kept a man in our ice house all night. We thought the man was lost when he found his way to our farm.

We always had lots of ice. The men would go to Fish Lake and cut 24 by 12 inch squares of ice that were 8 to 12 inches thick and bring them by sled to the ice house. Each year the total ice harvest was about 60 tons. The ice was stacked into the ice house and covered with saw dust. George and Elsie used the ice to deliver cold milk and cream to Spokane each day.

Shortly after we were first married, we whitewashed the barn. It looked so pretty, so white and clean. I was cooking dinner and heard a terrible noise. Leonard came running out of the barn, covered with manure.
While milking, he had been kicked by a cow. He had tied her hind legs together. She started to kick and felt the rope around her legs. She kicked Leonard into the gutter, covering him with manure. She kicked manure onto the freshly whitewashed walls. I couldn't help but laugh. Leonard did not think it was funny.

After we had been married a short time, I invited Gertrude and Edgar to visit us for Thanksgiving. I was very excited and had prepared a special Thanksgiving dinner. Unfortunately, Gertrude and Edgar became lost and did not arrive until 2:00 a.m. the next morning. Were they ever hungry! We had lots of good food for them and we were happy to see them.

Leonard and I went out to cut wood. I didn't know anything about a six- foot cross cut saw. But I got on one end of it and took hold of the handle. Leonard almost pulled me through the trunk of the tree. I finally found out how to work it, but I always wondered if I really helped very much.

We picked out our Christmas tree. It was so much fun, and we could be so choosy. It was our own first Christmas tree. We went to Bergen's in Spokane to get some things for Christmas. I wanted some money to buy decorations to trim our tree. The clerk that waited on us was very


rude, and when Leonard told him he had overpaid us by $5, he told Leonard that he did not make mistakes. So Leonard thanked him for the
$5 and I bought some pretty Christmas decorations.

I never knew much about Leonard's family. His folks had divorced and both remarried. We had been married many years before I found out that Leonard had been raised in the Washington Children's Orphanage in Spokane. Once I donated $2 to a young man that came to our home soliciting for money. Leonard was very put out. He told me the children at the Orphanage were fed green codfish and watered-down oatmeal.
He nearly died of the combination of malnutrition and illnesses when he contracted Scarlet Fever and Chicken Pox at the same time. After Leonard's Grandfather came to see Leonard at the Orphanage, he told Dad Wagenaar (Leonard's father) that if he didn't get Leonard out of the Orphanage, Leonard would likely die. Dad Wagenaar took Leonard to Dolly (Leonard's Stepmother). Dolly nurtured him back to health, but as soon as Leonard was strong enough, he was farmed out to work for room and board. He was never really loved until he met me. He loved our two children, Gilbert and Bonnie, very much and was very proud of them. I guess the Crandalls liked him, but they expected so much out of him that he was often late for school and was therefore forced to stop going to school.

Leonard had a photographic mind. He could read a page and repeat it, word for word. He got in trouble at school, because his teacher wanted him to rephrase information in his own words but all he could recite was the original text.

Leonard wanted to see Elmer (Elmer was one of Crandall's workers). When it became time for Leonard to leave, he begged to stay on with the understanding he would help Elsie with the housework and help with other chores outside. Elmer left after a fight with George and Leonard stayed on. George and Elsie were an odd couple in that they didn't have any children and very few friends.
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VISIT TO GUY AND MARIE IN WYOMING

After my graduation from high school we went to Wyoming where Guy was working in the mines. Mama, Edgar, and I went in Edgar's coupe.
It was quite an experience, as I had never been very far away from home. Leonard gave me thirty dollars to spend. That was a lot of money in those days. It enabled me to buy lots of things that I couldn't have otherwise.

While in Wyoming we saw the mines where Guy worked. Guy's neighbor, called "Fats" (I don't know why because he was very slender), drove me all around the country showing me all of the sights. We knew there had been several bad mine explosions. We just could not bear to leave Guy and his family there.

Edgar and Mama talked Guy into returning to Latah. Fats was killed in a mine explosion a few short days after we departed. How happy we were to have Guy out of that mine. Wyoming held nothing but heart breaking memories for them, as their beloved son, Gene, died there after an appendicitis operation. He had been nine years old and such a darling.

Guy and Marie's daughter, Veva Doris, was only six weeks old when we made the trip back to Latah. Veva was so tiny and such a little doll. I took such good care of her that people would say, "My, you are such a young mother." Marie and I did not tell them anything different. Veva would sleep all day while the car was going and then at night she would cry. I would walk back and forth with her and try to make a noise like a car.

On the way to Latah, Guy repeatedly had flat tires on his car. During one of the times while we were changing a flat tire, Guy told Dorothy and me to stay in the car because of the range cattle. But we did not stay in the car. We went for a little walk. All of a sudden range cattle began chasing us, including a huge wild bull. We ran from them and went into a bunch of willows. We found ourselves standing in water up


to our knees. Guy and Edgar responded to our calls for help. They threw rocks at the cattle while we ran for the car. Guy scolded us for our foolish behavior. When we made it to Butte, Montana, we stayed until we got tires with money that Mama wired home for.

After we arrived in Latah, Mama and I sorted peas. Marie took care of the children and cooked for us. When Leonard came from Cheney to see me, I gave Alma 25 cents to do the dishes for me so I could have more time with him.
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FATHER'S DEATH

My Father passed away on January 4, 1925 after having been paralyzed for eleven years. I was in my senior year when he died. He wanted to die, because he suffered so very much. He had suffered eight strokes, each one leaving him more helpless. He was so thin that I could hold him while Mama made his bed. On January 4, 1925, we realized that he was growing worse. Mama told me to hurry and get Doctor Smith.
Doctor Smith had to warm his shoes and coat. I kept telling him to hurry. But I guess he knew there wasn't anything he could do. Earlier that day, some of the school kids had come by to ask me to go skating with them. I was glad that I had not gone with them.

I was alone with Father in the parlor when he passed away. Doctor Smith had given Father some medicine. Mama and Doctor Smith then went into the kitchen. Father died so happy with Jesus' and Phi's names on his lips. Mama and I bathed and dressed Papa in his burial clothes. That night three men sat up with Papa for the Wake. Mama and I went to bed and every time I dropped off to sleep, I had terrible nightmares. I dreamed skeletons were wrapping their arms around me, taking my breath away. The doctor was chasing me with a big butcher knife.

Mama finally realized what I was going through. She had prayer with me and we recited the 23rd Psalm together. I went back to bed praying over and over, "Jesus, help me!" All of a sudden I was in a most lovely place of flowers, music, peace, and love. I was walking up a winding golden stairway, going up slowly. I was aware of singing and praising. At the top of the stairs was my Papa, with arms outstretched. A young, happy, praising-the-Lord Papa.

Then falling to sleep, I had such sweet dreams until morning. Up to the time of this writing, Mama is the only person to whom I had told about this vision. It was too wonderful for me to hear anyone not believe me or to make fun of it.


It was so cold the day of the funeral that we had to go to the cemetery in a wagon with straw piled on it. I never felt comfortable in that parlor again, because of the memories it held. In order to regard Papa's last wishes, I worked and waited until I was eighteen before marrying Leonard.

Within a year after Papa died, Mama received a letter from a prosperous rancher who had recently become a widower. In that letter the rancher proposed marriage. He told mother that he had always loved her since he first met her, but Edgar had married her before he had a chance to tell her of his love. He vowed that if she married him, he would make life good for her and that he would provide a college education for all of her children. Veva and I were very excited. We felt that this was very romantic. Edgar pretended that he thought nothing of it. Mama responded to the rancher and told him that Edgar had been her only love.
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VEVA'S TEACHING

Veva taught school at a little mountain school called the "Cove." The Cove school was located on the other side of the Neil Fuch's place. It was located between Spring Valley and Tekoa. Edgar and I would take two horses over the mountains and pick up Veva. Because we were three people with only two horses, we took turns riding the two horses. This trip was always very spooky.

When Veva started teaching at the Cove, there was trouble with a big boy named Francis. He had made every teacher quit. He came up to Veva and said, "What would you do to me if I don't mind? Would you spank me?" Veva looked at him, laughed, and said, "I should say not, a great big man like you?" She never had any trouble with him. He adored her and would bring in wood, clean blackboards, and help her in nearly every way he could.

Later Veva taught at the Bell School house, about two miles from Latah. We had one terrible blizzard. She was so afraid some of her pupils would try to go to school and find themselves locked outside in the cold blizzard. She and I put on all the clothes we could find, but we couldn't make it. Later we found out no one had gone to school.

Shortly after Veva married Leslie in January, I went to stay with them for a few days. They prepared the guest room upstairs for me. I woke up in the night with yellow jackets crawling over me. The weather was still cold and the yellow jackets were sluggish, otherwise I would have been stung. I was so upset that I ran downstairs and crawled into bed between Leslie and Veva.

When I was seventeen, we moved back to Latah. Edgar taught school at Sanders, Idaho. He bought a Model T Ford coupe and was so proud of it. One time he walked twenty miles to school in the muddy season to keep his new car clean. A girl friend and I took it to Veva and Leslie's


to see their new baby girl, Marion Joyce. I hadn't seen her and could hardly wait. We got stuck in the mud and Leslie had to get us out with his team. The poor little car was covered with mud. I think that was the angriest Edgar ever became with me. I nearly got a paddling, and should have.

When I returned to Latah and started school again, I joined the debate team. I really enjoyed debate. Sometimes I still dream I am on the debate team and cannot remember my subject. What a relief it is to wake up and discover it was a dream.

Edna brought Edna Mae to visit us when Papa was feeling ill. Edna Mae, my niece, was used to singing and playing the ukulele. When Edgar bought me one, she talked me into learning a few chords and singing with her in the Evangelical Church, whose members were mostly German. I was so nervous and scared, but Edgar and Veva said we sounded quite good.

Edna Mae and I had lots of fun together, when Edna was not with us. Edna was such a baby about Edna Mae. Clyde, my cousin, Edgar, and Edna Mae and I went to Spokane. Trent Street in Spokane was the skidrow street. Edgar and Clyde went into a second hand store and told Edna Mae and me to stay in the car with the doors locked, but we didn't. When two rough dirty men began to follow, we ran back to the car, locked the doors, and remained in it.

Edgar bought me a little tiny ivory handled knife with two folding blades. It was about one and a half inches long. I kept it and treasured it for all of these years. When I asked my nephew, Bobbie, what I could pay him for helping me with this manuscript, he told me that the little tiny ivory handled knife that his father had given me was the payment he wanted. After discussing it with Bonnie and receiving her concurrence, I gave the knife to Bobbie and now it is treasured by him.
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MEETING LEONARD

Fred Crowe lived on one of the nicest and most prosperous farms in the Palouse hills. He met with Bertha and Ed and told them that he had selected me as his girl. Bertha and Ed were excited and encouraged me to become friendly with Fred.. Fred did not share my Christian faith I resented their taking this position, because I was not interested in Fred. Later in life, Fred became an alcoholic, causing him to lose his wife, children, and the farm. Although Bertha and Ed felt I was making a big mistake, im retrospect, I believe that the Lord led me to make the right decision.

On my sixteenth birthday, a boy in my class wanted me to go to a prayer meeting at the little red schoolhouse out in the country. He said there was a friend he wanted me to meet. He called him "Len." I didn't want to go very badly, but I had a new dress to wear, so I did. There I met Leonard Wagenaar, eighteen. He was staying with Mr. and Mrs.
Crandall who had a stock farm near Marshall, Washington. He was such a nice clean looking boy that I took a great liking to him and we soon became engaged. Leonard had an unloved childhood. His mother and father were divorced and both remarried. He was farmed out and worked hard for room and board.

Leonard remembers one family that made him happy on a ranch in Bend, Oregon. Droves of sheep were herded past the ranch. Leonard followed behind the sheep band and picked up little lambs that were born on the trail and were too weak to keep up with the band. He would put them on his saddle and take them to the ranch to feed through the winter. In the spring the herders returned with new droves and picked up the lambs Leonard had taken care of. They would pay Leonard good money for the sheep. Leonard used the money to purchase nice clothes. My folks also became very fond of Leonard, but Papa wanted me to graduate and wait until I was eighteen before we married.


When I met Leonard, he told me about a bay horse he used to have. He loved that horse and taught him to dance to phonograph music. He rode him over to Red's house one night and put him in the barn. The horse ate some rotten carrots in the bin and became sick. The vet attempted to save him, but could not help. Leonard really missed that horse and could not talk about him without crying.

Leonard had a little black horse that he dearly loved. His name was Prince. He would try to kiss Leonard and nuzzle him, but prince didn't like me and would try to bite me every chance he would get. Leonard would ride him to school and to Marshall, but had to blindfold him to get him to cross the railroad tracks, because Prince did not like the reflections of the sun on the tracks.

While Leonard and I were still going together, Edgar changed the oil in his car. Edgar and I and Florence, a girl who boarded with us, and Leonard went to Spokane. Coming home, the oil accidently drained out. We had to push the car up the hill, jump in and ride down the hill. After a while that got to be just too much, so Leonard walked two miles and got his horse. He returned and pulled the car to Cheney. The sun was just coming up when we got home, and poor little Mama had been up all night worrying.
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SCHOOL SPORTS

I was in the Latah school for all but one year. When I was fifteen, we moved to Cheney so that Edgar and Veva could go to normal college and study for teaching. Edgar and Veva both taught school. I was Valedictorian of my graduating class of 1925. I was given a scholarship which would really have been a big help if I had gone on to college. I had wanted to be an English teacher, but was married instead. I never regretted it.

I played lots of tennis and basketball. In Cheney the girls played basketball using boys' rules, which was quite rough. After we moved back to Latah, we played using girls' basketball rules, which was much better. We felt very daring in our black bloomers and our white middies. I played center. There were two of us girls competing for the center position. We got very rough. I finally got it as Ruth Moss knocked me unconscious and kicked me.

We had lots of fun in basketball. We went to all of the games in all of the towns around us. We had a feud going against Fairfield. Both teams had great players. Edgar played guard on the Latah high school basketball team. Edgar was a very good player and one year his team won first place in state. His second wife, Marcella, still has a photograph of the team. Edgar was a good looking young man and the girls fought to get dates with him. He did not date very much. Edgar and I played doubles in tennis tournaments in Spokane and we won first place.

One noon hour, a boy named Glen, who had a new car, invited one of my girlfriends and me to go for a ride in it. One of Glen's friends also joined us. We started, but on the way to Spring Valley the car had a flat tire. There was no spare. By the time we got someone to help us, it was too late to go back to school. We decided that none of us would tell Mr. Sterling, the principal, about it.


When I arrived home and told Mama about it, she insisted that I go over and tell Mr. Sterling. All four of us independently went to him and told him what had happened. He said it was a good thing he was told, or we would all have been expelled from school. The four of us were from the English IV Class which was one of the classes taught by Mr.
Sterling.

When Veva was going with Leslie Lamb, he would bring Veva big boxes of candy. Veva would hide these under her bed, but Edgar and I would usually find them. Veva taught in the old Bell School house in Latah. I would teach for her when she was sick and get such a thrill out of it. While we were in Cheney, she married Leslie Lamb, leaving only Edgar and me at home with the folks.

Guy came to visit us in Latah and brought Gene with him. How I loved that little boy. He would walk to school with me and meet me after school. We would have lots of fun. When Gene was nine years old, he became sick and had to have an operation for appendicitis.

Mama went to the door and received a telegram announcing that Gene had died. Veva and I were upstairs making beds when we heard Mama. I can still hear her screaming in shock and sorrow. Poor Guy had to bring Gene alone to Latah for burial. Marie and the other children had to stay at home in Wyoming. What a time of sorrow and loss.
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INVENTIONS

We were very excited and amazed at the appearance of new inventions. I'll never forget when one of our neighbors was the first to buy a new radio. They lived in a small house. They turned on the radio and opened all of their windows and doors. Everyone that could get into the house and within hearing distance was there to hear it. There was a line of automobiles parked along the street. What a thrill it was to see our first airplane. We nearly craned our necks off.

Maxine McCann's family was the first to install a telephone in Latah. The year was approximately 1914. The telephone made many changes in our lives and enhanced our ability to communicate with those more than a few miles away.

A boy named Ambrose lived with his aunt and uncle while going to school in Latah. He bought a brand new Ford and taught me to drive when I was 15. We had sneak day every year at school and quite a few of us went to the Natatorium Park in Spokane for the day. Ambrose and I became separated from the rest and Ambrose became so sick that I had to drive home.

It was very dark as we drove through a driving rain storm. I prayed all the way home. There was one really bad turn just before we got to Fairfield. I prayed about that turn before we got there. There were no cars coming, so we had no trouble at the turn. Ambrose was so sick he just laid in the back seat like he was dead. We stopped at our house and Mama gave him some medicine. I never saw him again. His aunt said he was so sick that he was sent to the Deaconess Hospital in Spokane. I have always wondered what happened to him, as we were such good friends.
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FLUE EPIDEMIC

I can't remember what year it was, but we had a terrible flue epidemic. We lost my cousin and her baby. One of my school friends lost her mother. We all became sick at the same time. Daddy Pittman (my sister Bertha's father-in-law) put a sack of oranges at the door and knocked.
One of us would crawl down and get them. That is all we had to eat for days.

We all worried that Papa, in his weakened condition, might become very ill if he contacted the flu. Mama became so ill with her flu that she fainted and fell down the steps. She eventually had to go to bed and remain there until she recovered her strength.

Maxine and I had the flue at the same time. We took our first walk outside on the same day. We would hardly speak to each other because we were angry that the other had not come to visit us. When we discovered what the problem was, we forgave each other.
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WORLD WAR I

In 1918, I remember World War I being fought. My sister Veva's boy friend was killed, as well as others that we knew. Even though most of the people in Latah were Germans, speaking in German was forbidden. Maxine and I would go to the post office and we would over hear some of the men conversing in German. We just knew that they must be spies.

During this time many commodities were rationed. Sugar and many other commodities were very limited and very difficult to buy. Our sugar was divided into five parts. Although Papa said he did not use as much sugar as the rest of us, he was out of sugar first. Edgar and I often made candy with our sugar and also shared some of our sugar with Papa.

Maxine and I were talking one day, when our principal went running up to the school house. Maxine said, "there goes long legs. I wonder where he is going?" Then we heard the school bells ringing. Everyone was shouting, "The war is over! The war is over!" We strung up an effigy of the Kaiser and burned him up.
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MEMORIES OF PAPA

Veva and I enjoyed trying to slip into the upstairs bedroom where Papa was, without him hearing us. We took off our shoes and stepped over the step on the stairs that squeaked. We almost made it into the other bedroom beyond his room and he said, "It that you girls?" Papa had perfect hearing. Mama was deaf in one ear. All four of us girls had some hearing difficulties. Edgar and Guy both had excellent hearing.

Papa was very good to go to all of the events at the school house. Our house was at the bottom of the hill, while the school house was at the top. Papa would start really early so he would be there on time, as it took him longer to walk than the rest of us. But he always went to all of our programs.

Edgar had a difficult childhood. He was the only one who could get Papa to come back home when he would leave in the middle of the night. Papa would get spells when he felt neglected and discouraged. It was a result of trauma from his stroke. Papa had loved to sing in church choir, but his stroke robbed him of his beautiful tenor voice. Papa was so sensitive about being disabled that he refused to go downtown.
Several men from the church often came to visit him.

One man stands out, whom we called Ole. His name was Ole Gersburgerr. When I was little and couldn't speak plainly, I called him "Grandpa Holy." Papa really got after me, but he was sorry after he realized that I thought "Holy" was his correct name.

We had so much fun when we went to Ole's house. He had a big ranch and seven children. He always provided lots of good food to eat. He was a wonderful Christian. Later he suffered terribly with cancer.
Everyone in Latah loved him. We children couldn't understand why God allowed him to suffer so very much.


When I was still in grade school, a girl gave me a darling little black puppy. Papa said that I couldn't keep it because I had my pet rabbits. I cried and felt so bad. The next day when I came home Papa had suffered another stroke and was lying on the floor. That little black puppy never left his side and every once in a while would lick Papa's face. Papa told me that I could keep him.

One end of our front porch of our home in Latah was covered with morning glories. The humming birds just loved the beautiful colored blossoms. Papa loved to watch them dart in and out of the flowers that displayed so many beautiful colors.

I had felt that Papa did not like me as well as the other children. When I was 12, one experience permitted me to feel especially close to Papa.
While Papa was visiting his sister Aunt Eva and her husband Uncle Barnett in Grandview, I picked cherries for Glen and Bertha Cowles. Papa came out to the cherry orchard where I was working and visited with me while he picked up cherries that I had dropped.

Aunt Eva always served bread and milk for supper. Papa did not like bread and milk suppers. To please Papa, I asked Clyde (Uncle Barnett and Aunt Eva Cowles' son) to take me to the store to buy candy and cookies. It was during this time that I best learned to know my Papa. During times when I was away visiting Leonard, Papa could hardly wait for me to return home. It made me feel that he really did love me.
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WORKING IN LATAH

I was afraid of the dark and I had to deliver milk down a dark back alley. I would walk slowly into the alley with the milk, but coming back, I'd run home really fast. We had lots of fun as kids, but we had to do lots of work. We felt abused at the time, but looking back we could have helped poor little Mama much more.

Edgar and I sacked potatoes one year. We had to shake the sacks to get the right weight of potatoes in each sack. Edgar could do a lot more than I could. He would help me with mine. We earned five cents per sack. Edgar was very generous with his money and would buy me nice things. One time he bought me a wrist watch and at another time, a ukulele.

Mama was really worried as summer approached, because she had finished her winter work sorting peas. She and Bertha sorted little white peas from the green ones. My sister Veva knew Mrs. Fred Potratz and when she heard that Mr. Potratz was looking for two strong women to cook in his cook shack while they were harvesting their wheat fields, they immediately applied for the job and got it.

Mama and Veva cooked for 48 harvest hands during harvest in a portable cook shack that followed the horse-drawn combines through the wheat fields near Latah. The cook shack was also pulled by a horse.

The cooking was done on a big wood stove. One of the ranch hands named Fritz Roustabout hauled in the wood for the stove, purchased and delivered the groceries, and supplied fresh water. When we prepared to move to a new location, every dish was taken out of the cupboards, put on the floor, and covered with sheets. When we arrived at a new location everything had to be washed and put back. Sometimes we moved twice in one day. We served three big meals and two lunches every day. Breakfast was served at 6 am, lunch at 10 am,


dinner at 12 pm, lunch at 3 pm, and at the 6 pm quitting time, we served supper. Neighbors helped neighbors. The big wood stoves baked and cooked good food, but it took a lot of work.

Fritz was very diligent and became worried that the egg supply was being consumed too fast. The eggs were kept in crates under the cook shack. He maintained special vigilance over the cook shack and caught one of the crew sucking raw eggs. Fritz solved the mystery of the vanishing eggs.

The harvest required a crew of 48 persons. Thirty men were required to operate ten wagons. Two men pitched wheat on each wagon while one man drove the wagon. The wheat was pushed into rolls and driven up to the combine. It took two or three men to sew the sacks. One year my brother Guy Gilbert and my brother-in-law, Ed Pittmann sacked the wheat. When the wheat was yielding heavy, it took an additional man to help them. It also took one man to keep the sacks coming. Fritz and three women operated the cook shack. Two men were required to clean up around the combine. Two men were required to keep the harnesses ready to go all the time and to feed and water the horses. Four farmers that owned the wheat fields also worked along with the harvest crew.
When a field was finished, Fritz moved the four-wheeled cook shack on to the next location.

Edgar got a job and I also helped as much as I could. Edgar was only 12 years old, but he was strong and healthy. He could do a man's job. I stayed part time at the cook shack and stayed part time with Bertha and also helped take care of my father. My job was to peel buckets of potatoes and carrots, snap string beans, open and clean peas, and wash dishes. Mama and Veva made pies, cakes and cookies, fried meat, and baked big roasts. The work was hard, but the pay was good.

One Sunday I decided to decorate the cook shack. I picked a basket of goldenrods and placed them all around inside the cook shack. When Mama and Veva returned, Mama started sneezing and blowing her nose. She was reluctant to tell me she was allergic to the goldenrods. So we put them outside, but it was fun anyway.


I had lots of fun staying with Bertha during summer harvests while Mama and Veva worked in the portable cook shack. Bertha and Ed raised rabbits to sell. No one could cook rabbit like by sister Bertha. My childhood would have been quite lonesome as Mama had to work so much. Sister Bertha would tell me the most wonderful stories, and played lots of games with me. I can never tell in words what she did for me. Ed was so good to us, too. He built a tree house for me to play in.
He never made us feel unwelcome, even though Edgar and I were there so often, me more than Edgar. When we had pie and basket socials, sister Bertha always helped me.

Once while visiting Bertha, I got into trouble. She told me not to hoe in a certain place, but I ignored her advice. I hoed into the forbidden location, struck some rotten eggs, and caused them to explode all over me. My clothes and my hair were a mess. Rotten eggs dripped from my long curls. I think that Bertha would have gladly given me away at that time, and I wouldn't have blamed her.

Edgar started working at a man's job in the wheat harvest at age twelve. He worked with a crew of 47 men on the threshing machine every summer we were in school. Edgar asked Mama and Veva not to kiss him good night, because the men teased him about it. Mama and Veva agreed and said they wouldn't. They kept their word, but because we are such a kissing family, it was a hard promise for them to keep. But the next day Edgar told them he didn't sleep well, so go ahead and kiss him goodnight. He would rather be teased than not kissed.

Mama's cook shack job continued over a period of about ten years, until I graduated from high school. I spent some of my time with them after I was old enough (about seven or eight) to be of some help. Most of my work was peeling vegetables and washing dishes. Sorting peas in the winter time and the cook shack work kept us with almost enough money.
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HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS

The celebration of the Fourth of July was a major event for us. With 25 cents to spend, we would have so much fun. The celebration consisted of firecrackers, a parade, chasing a greased pig for a prize, sack jump racing, hot wiener sandwiches and ice cream.

One Fourth of July, Edgar and a friend set up and operated a lemonade and hot dog stand. They did really well with it. I really thought my big brother was a good business man. Maxine and I were given free hot dogs and lemonade.

Halloween was sure fun, but Papa wouldn't let Edgar and I go very far. One year Veva went with some older young people and they put a cow up on the roof of a store. If they had been forced to work that hard, they would have really felt abused. Papa was unhappy with Veva for taking part in that trick. Some sign posts were knocked down, but Papa was pleased that Veva was not involved in that.

One Thanksgiving day we skated and kept warm by a big bonfire. We were having so much fun that we forgot to go home in time for dinner. When we got home, Papa was really disgusted with us. We had been very thoughtless. We ate so much that we laid across chairs and got the giggles. For punishment, we had to do all of the dishes and cleaning up.

My sister Bertha gave me a surprise birthday party. It was my one and only childhood party. It really was a surprise. I thought it was strange that, even though it was in the evening, Papa told Mama to curl my hair again. But we didn't argue with Papa. So Mama curled my hair and sent me down to Bertha's house. When I entered the house, the kids jumped up and down and yelled, "Happy Birthday, Bertha!"

Grandma Doty was an elderly lady who lived with Bertha and Ed. Bertha told her we were going to have a party and for her not to come


out of her room. But halfway through the party, here she comes with her chamber pot clutched over her stomach right through our party. I was so embarrassed, but the kids thought it was so funny and laughed so hard, that I enjoyed it too.

I dressed up like a boy to take Maxine to a party. I dressed up in Lyle Farrely's suit. I wore a white shirt and tie. I combed my hair back from my face and I really looked like a young man. We had lots of fun.
When it was time to take Maxine home, I was afraid of the dark. We took a stand in the middle of the block and then ran like mad to our homes. Maxine and I had lots of fun together, except when her cousins came to visit from Spokane and no one would play with me.

We really had fun when there was a wedding in town. These were always followed with a "charivari." Edgar, Maxine, and I always went. Generous amounts of candy, cookies, and other good things were provided. We would always take an old pan and beat it with sticks. The charivari that I most often recall is the one given to the storekeeper when he was married He wouldn't give us anything good to eat. So the men waited until the couple had gone to bed. They broke in the door and made him get up and open his store and give us all some candy. He was surely angry, and his poor little wife was crying. I felt sorry for them. Every Sunday we went to Sunday school and church at the Methodist Church (later the Methodist and Baptist church combined to form the Union Church) and went to someone's house or they came to our house. Then after dinner, we had church again. At night we went to Christian Endeavor and to church again.

We couldn't play any games of any kind on Sunday. We would sit and tell ghost stories, true or made up. One young woman had committed suicide and we were scared of that house. One old man was really cranky. We were afraid of his house because we thought it was haunted.

May day was a big event for us. We made baskets out of patterned and colorful, but stiff wallpaper and carried them up onto the bluffs that surrounded Latah. We picked arm loads of wild flowers. We waited until dark and distributed flower baskets on door knobs of friends' and


neighbors' houses. After knocking on each door, we ran and hid. We would let people try to find out who had left the basket of flowers.
Unfortunately, children don't seem to do this anymore, and it is a shame, because it was so exciting and so much good clean fun. Also, some love was put into each basket. We also used wallpaper for making valentines, dolls, and doll clothes. We also made our own glue using water and flour.
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